IN_GUIDE_FOR_DETECTIO

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DEFICIENCY IN LUBRICATION

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During the normal functioning of the engine, an adequate quantity of oil to lubricate, clean and transfer the heat is supplied to the bearings of the turbocharger. However, the same is more sensitive when there is a limited quantity of the oil supply than the engine itself. This happens due to the high temperatures and the high level of rotation reached by the shaft of the turbocharger.
The lack or a low oil pressure and/or delay in the oil stream during the ignition may result in destructive consequences to the internal components of the turbocharger.

PROBABLE CAUSES:
The shutting off of the engine while the same is still in high rotation.
Turning on the engine and accelerating.
Misuse of glue, silicon or liquid adhesive, in the entry of the lubricant oil.
Oil filter of bad quality damaged or saturated.
Lubricant oil overdue, without viscosity and signs of carbonization (inadequate).
Level of oil inside the crankcase outside the specifications.
Low pressure of engine oil.
Pipe or flexible feeder of oil creased, cracked or obstructed.
Improper working of the Bypass valve.

CONSEQUENCES:
Wear of the journal bearings, the shaft and thrust bearing.
Bronze marks and blueing on the shaft.
Friction of the compressor and turbine wheels against the compressor and turbine housings (unbalance).
Wear and tear of piston rings (thrust collar/shaft).
Blueing of the thrust collar.
Wear on the housing of the journal bearings in the bearing housing.

SYMPTOMS:
Oil leak.
Noise.
Excessive smoke.
Excessive oil consumption.
Loss of potency.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
Replace the lubricant oil within the due dates fixed by the manufacturer of the engine, observing the driving mode and operation of the vehicle, with the exception when the same is working in places with high concentration of dust or other detrimental conditions to its good performance. In this case it will be necessary to shorten the periods of replacing both the oil filter as well as the lubricant oil. Verify the oil pressure using a manometer. Before replacing the turbocharger verify the integrity and the absence of impurities inside the lubrication duct. Make these inspections regularly and replace the elements as necessary.

OIL IMPURITIES

turbo60

If the engine is required to work in places with high levels of dust or any other detrimental conditions (severe ones) to its good performance, it will be necessary to shorten the replacement periods of the lubricant oil and the oil filter. Not following these guidelines to replace both the lubricant oil and the oil filter in shorter periods, will cause a series of damages due to the lubrication with contaminated oil, with the consequent premature wear of the internal components because of the friction with hard particles (abrasive) which will be inside the lubricant.

PROBABLE CAUSES:
Particles that come from the natural wear of movable parts inside the engine.
Oil or oil filter of bad quality or saturated.
Any contamination happened during installation or maintenance procedures.
Carbonized oil and/or draff (reused lubricant).
Rectified engine with impurities inside the galleries.
Carbonized oil due to high temperatures of the engine.
Residue of incomplete combustion.

CONSEQUENCES:
Rupture of internal components of the turbocharger.
Friction of the compressor and turbine wheels against the compressor and turbine housings (unbalance).
Scratches/wear of the bearings (thrust and journal bearings), thrust washer and thrust collar.
Scratches/wear on the shaft.

SYMPTOMS:
Noises.
Loss of potency.
Excessive smoke.
Excessive oil consumption.
Oil leak.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
Replace the lubricant oil within the due dates fixed by the manufacturer of the engine, observing the driving conditions and operation of the vehicle, with the exception when the same is working in places with high concentration of dust or other detrimental conditions to its good performance. In this case it will be necessary to shorten the periods of replacing both the oil filter as well as the lubricant oil.
Make this inspection on a regular basis and replace the components as necessary.

INTAKE OF A STRANGE BODY ON THE TURBINE HOUSING SIDE

turbo61-1

The intake of strange objects, as small as they can be, will damage the turbine wheel impairing the proper functioning of the turbocharger.

PROBABLE CAUSES:
Fragments coming from inside the engine such as: pieces of valves, valves seats, piston rings, etc.
Exhaust manifold damaged and/or loose pieces of joints.
Objects left inside the exhaust manifold during the installation or maintenance procedures.

CONSEQUENCES:
Unbalance on the shaft and wheel assembly of the turbocharger.
Friction of the compressor and turbine wheels against the compressor and turbine housings (unbalance).
Wear of the internal components.
Shaft rupture.
Blades of the turbine wheel broken or crushed.

SYMPTOMS:
Loss of power.
Strange noises while working.
Excessive smoke.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
Before replacing the turbocharger, verify the integrity and the absence of impurities inside the exhaust system.
Periodically check on the engine conditions and the exhaust manifold due to the possibility that some residue may have fallen off damaging the turbine wheel.

INTAKE OF A STRANGE BODY ON THE COMPRESSOR HOUSING SIDE

turbo62

The intake of strange objects, as small as they can be, will cause damages to the compressor wheel, harming the proper work of the turbocharger.

PROBABLE CAUSES:
Fragments originating in other turbocharger (solid impurities).
Saturated air filter breaking down.
Lack of air filter.
Hoses cracked, crumbly or out of specification.
Nuts, washers, clips, clamps, pieces of burlap or cloth which, by chance, are inside the air filter pipe.

CONSEQUENCES:
Unbalance on the shaft and wheel assembly of the turbocharger.
Friction of the compressor and turbine wheels against the compressor and turbine housings (unbalance).
Wear of the internal components.
Shaft rupture.
Blades of the compressor wheel broken or crushed.

SYMPTOMS:
Loss of potency.
Strange noises while working.
Excessive smoke.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
Before replacing the turbocharger, verify the integrity and the absence of impurities inside the duct of air admission.
Periodically check on the conditions of air admission due to the possibility that some residue may have fallen off damaging the compressor wheel, e.g. small pieces of the air filter.

OIL LEAK THROUGH THE COMPRESSOR HOUSING SIDE

turbo63

The system connections of air pressure when maintained improperly or having problems may cause oil leak through the seals of the compressor housing side. There are some cases in which the rupture of the exit hose of the compressor and the fall in the air pressure are responsible for oil leak through the seals of the turbocharger. With the components full of oil and dirty it is possible to imagine that some kind of failure happened in the turbocharger. But, in reality, when the air leak is fixed, the turbocharger will work perfectly.

PROBABLE CAUSES:
Element of the air filter with restrictions above the specified.
Obstruction in the air entry duct into the compressor of the turbocharger.
Air leak in the duct of the compressor going to the intercooler and/or the admission manifold.
Problems and oil leaks coming from inside of the engine.
Obstruction in the oil return from the turbocharger to the crankcase.
Obstruction in the engine breather.
Formation of oil sludge which can cause the diminishing rotation of the shaft and inhibit drainage causing oil leak.
Accumulation of dirt in the compressor wheel of a damaged turbocharger.
Gases recirculation valve damaged.

CONSEQUENCES:
Oil leak.
Loss of potency.

SYMPTOMS:
Excessive smoke.
Loss of potency.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
Change the air filter.
Remove any obstruction and replace the damaged parts, if necessary.
Correct the escape of pressurized air, replacing the joints and retightening the clamps and the bolts.
Find and correct the source of contamination in the compressor wheel (non filtered air). Change the lubricant oil and the air and oil filters.
Verify the working condition of the system. Exchange damaged parts.
Replace the valve responsible to make the recirculation of gases.
To regulate the system or make any engine repairs, check the manual of the vehicle maker.

OIL LEAK THROUGH THE TURBINE HOUSING SIDE

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When there is evidence of oil leak it is necessary to determine its origin.

PROBABLE CAUSES:
Problems and oil leaks coming from inside of the engine.
Oil return from the turbocharger to the crankcase (PCV valve) obstructed.
Wear of the sleeve cylinder and piston rings of the engine (Blowby).
Engine slow running for a long time.
Wrong position of the bearing housing of the turbocharger (vertical position above fiftteen degrees).
Obstruction in the engine breather.
Formation of oil sludge which can cause the diminishing rotation of the shaft and inhibit drainage causing oil leak.

CONSEQUENCES:
Oil leak.
Formation of oil sludge which can cause the diminishing rotation of the shaft and inhibit drainage causing oil leak.

SYMPTOMS:
Excessive smoke.
Loss of potency.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
Check the manual of the engine manufacturer and fix the problem. Analyze the motive of failure of the turbocharger and correct its cause. If necessary replace the turbocharger. Change the lubricant oil and the air and oil filters.

IMPROPER USE GLUE OR SILICON IN LUBE OIL INLET

turbo65

The application of these elements in galleries in which will flow lubricating oil is not recommended because they may end up clogging the whole or in part, either by applying improperly or by the waste that can loosen up with time.

EVIDENCE: Presence of waste glue, silicone or external-thread sealing tape or internally to the turbocharger.

BURNOUTS IN BEARINGS
The lubricant flow in radial and axial bearings must be adequate to lubricate the bearings, and clean the surfaces transfer the heat thereof. The shaft and bearings “float” on a film of oil which should be sufficient and damage may occur.
The lubrication deficiency causes scratching and tearing of material both bearings, radial and axial. Once the shaft being unstable and turning “off center” can occur secondary damage: contact of the rotors with the carcasses, warping or shaft breakage, destruction of piston rings or axial bearing.

AXIAL EFFORT: The turbocharger operates at high speed, which for its operation should be a perfect balance of pressure between the air intake systems and exhaust gases. If there is an imbalance of pressures, the rotating assembly is forced axially causing wear of internal components, followed by oil leakage from the white smoke emission can also be caused by axial forces.

CAUSES:
– Clogged air filter.
– Collapse of the hoses of the air supply system.
– Restriction in exhaust gas system.
– Incorrect exhaust pipe (ø).

CONSEQUENCES:
– Risk / wear rotor turbine and thermal protection due to friction.
– Risk / wear on the housing channels piston rings (Necklace and Axis).
– Risk / wear on the back and collar bearing.
– Imbalance (friction of the rotors in the carcasses).

SYMPTOMS:
– Oil leak.
– Noise.
– Power loss.


ATTENTION:

Loss of potency, oil leaking through the compressor and/or the turbine housing, excessive exhaust smoke (white or black), excessive fuel or lubricant oil consumption, overheating, high temperature of exhaust gases, strange noises in the turbocharger, are all symptoms showing that the same is not working properly. To avoid the mistaken imputation of these failures to the turbocharger, first verify the most plausible cause of the defect. The improper work of the system may damage the turbocharger.

To prevent damages to the turbocharger and the engine, it is indispensable to follow all the instructions contained in the manual of the manufacturer of the engine or the vehicle maker.

In case of failure we like to point some warning signs that may appear on vehicle: strange noises when the vehicle is running, bright lights on the dashboard, excessive exhaust smoke, excessive heat and etc.

PROCEDURES ON HOW TO OBTAIN A LONGER DURABILITY OF THE TURBOCHARGER

To secure the maximum durability and the best performance of the turbocharger, please pay attention to some proper care which are essential:
To accelerate the engine immediately after starting it damages the turbocharger, because the same goes into a high rotation before the flow of oil has reached the shaft. To accelerate the engine immediately before turning it off, also causes damages to the turbocharger because the shaft rotation goes again into high speed at the same moment that the lubrication stops with the shutting off of the oil pump.
The two conditions described above cause the heating and the wear of the bearings and the shaft that, in a long term, can cause the destruction of the turbocharger.

The return of the oil has a double function: the first is to give sufficient flow, through gravity, to the entire volume of oil that entered the turbocharger under pressure to lubricate the same. The second is to guarantee the flow of the pressure that is created inside of the compressor housing and the turbine housing, which comes into the bearing housing through the piston rings and the collar piston ring.

Therefore it is necessary that the oil return be totally free, otherwise it will create a counter pressure inside the turbocharger causing oil leaking and the carbonization of it. It is not allowed that the oil return be below the level of the crankcase oil. Also, is not permitted the presence of a return hose folded or dilated, and that the pressure of the crankcase reaches levels that are superior to 100mm in the water column (10/cm2) when the engine is at full charge.

ALTITUDE COMPENSATION

According to the different levels of altitudes the air becomes thinner and the atmospheric pressure diminishes. This make aspirated engines to lose about 10% of their potency for every 1000 meters of ascent. However, the turbocharger is capable of minimizing this performance loss. In case the work is constantly done on altitudes above 2000 meters, it is important to use a specific turbocharger. For more information on applications related to altitude consult the electronic catalog of Biagio Turbos.